The simplest applications (1., 2., 3.) consist of forming the ESTS (Electron Spiral Toroid Spheromak) and then accelerating it as we have demonstrated.  The clean energy application will consist of forming one ESTS, holding it in place, and then forming a second and accelerating it to collide with the first (4., 5.).  In all of these applications we will not need external magnetic field containment of the ESTSs, which will ensure small size and low mass.  The applications below are listed in the order of simplest at the top.

1. X-ray generation: Accelerating the ESTS and stopping it onto a target will create X-rays. The potential is for bright X-ray pulses across the range of soft to hard X-rays.

2. Electric Propulsion for space:  We calculate we can provide a high-powered spacecraft thruster by accelerating ESTSs and sending them out of the spacecraft.  The small size and lack of large, heavy external magnetic containment will provide significant advantages.

3. Air and Missile defense beam: Our calculations show the potential for a defense beam that travels through air at 600,000 m/s to engage an incoming threat 100 km distant in less than a second, far more quickly than can a rocket.

4. Clean energy: The TRISOPS team from the 1980’s collided two spheromaks to produce neutrons. Our calculations show we can potentially improve on that process. Our ESTS is about 100 times more dense than the TRISOPS plasmas.  Also, we need no magnetic fields for containment so our apparatus will be smaller.  This is discussed in greater detail on the Clean Energy page.

5. Neutron generation for testing: Others have collided spheromaks to produce neutrons, notably the TRISOPS team from the 1980’s. The ESTS will potentially provide an improved neutron source.